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Human Environment
Atlas Team

Geosphere is the solid part of the earth consisting of the crust and outer mantle which is made mostly of rock and regolith. The geosphere is characterized by many features, mineral distributions, processes and others some of which are critical for the socio-welfare and development of humans. This page focuses on several key issues related to the geosphere.

  • Geohazards - Geohazards comprise of all natural hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, and volcanoes affect both coastal and inland areas. Long-term data from these events, including photographs, can be used to establish the past record of natural hazard event occurrences. These data are also important for planning, response, and mitigation of future events. [US NGDC Website]

  • Historical Geophysical Surveys - Marine Trackline Geophysics data surveys contains bathymetric, magnetic & gravity  navigation data collected during marine cruises from 1953 to the present. The digital databases are holding by the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC)

  • Minerals: The NGDC Marine Geology Inventory provides access to all marine geology data archived by, and available through NGDC, regardless of data format. Marine geologic data types include descriptions and analyses of marine sediment and hard rock samples and types of minerals identified from projects such as the Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and the Internation Ocean Drilling Program (ODP). Other parameters include collecting institution, ship, cruise, sample identifier, date, latitude/longitude, water depth in corrected meters, type of sampling device, and type (s) of descriptive/analytical data available through NGDC and the World Data Center for MGG, Boulder for each sample.

  • Sediments: Sediment thickness data were compiled by the National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and are intended to provide a minimum value for the thickness of the sediment.

  • Soils: Soils data comprise, soil profile depth (a measurement from the surface to the bottom of the soil profile); soil slope (an average topographical slope for each square, it reflects all the soil regime); soil texture (the relative proportion of the various separates in a soil described by the percent clay, sand and slit); soil type (a classification basis of size, and degree of distinctness into types Data are from Soil Characteristics from FAO.

  • Land Cover: The land cover classifications at 1 km spatial resolution is developed as well as to provide global land cover products for immediate use in global change research. In addition to describing vegetative cover according to topological schemes, representatives vegetative cover more realistically as gradients and mosaics of cover types are made.